Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939)
Sigmund freud was an Austrian neurologist who founded the psychoanalytic
school of psychology. Freud is best known for his theories of the unconscious
mind and the defense mechanism of repression and for creating the clinical
practice of psychoanalysis for treating psychopathology through dialogue
between a patient and a psychoanalyst. Freud is also renowned for his redefinition
of sexual desire as the primary motivational energy of human life, as well
as his therapeutic techniques, including the use of free association, his
theory of transference in the therapeutic relationship, and the interpretation
of dreams as sources of insight into unconscious desires. He was also an
early neurological researcher into cerebral palsy.
Freud spent most of his life in Vienna, where was formed around him a brilliant
group of followers who believed that his ideas could do for the treatment
of neurotic patients, more than any other method. These people spread their
ideas throughout Europe and America. Some of them subsequently withdrew from
the original psychoanalytic society and founded their own schools. The most
famous of these are Alfred Adler and Carl Jung.
Around 1910, Alfred Adler began to pay attention to some of the conscious
personality factors and gradually deviated from the basic Freud’s ideas,
namely, the perceptions of the importance of infant hunger for life and the
driving force of the subconscious cruelty. After some time, Adler himself
realized that his thoughts are farther away from Freud's psychoanalysis,
and then he called his system “individual psychology".
The early books of Carl Jung, in particular relating to the psychology of
schizophrenia and to tests on verbal associations, are highly valued by psychiatrists.
But in 1912 he published a book about the psychology of subconscious, from
which it became clear that his thoughts were taking a direction quite different
from the status of the ideas of psychoanalysis. To differentiate his system
of psychoanalysis, he called it "analytical psychology". Over time, his idea
increasingly moved away from Freud's ideas, and he began to vigorously promote
the idea of the mystical East, which have nothing in common with scientific
psychology as we understand it in the Western world.
"Interpretation of Dreams", this book does not require any psychological
and scientific training, in a form which shall neither discourage beginners,
nor appear too elementary to those who are more advanced in psychoanalytic
Dream psychology is the key to Freuds works and to all modern psychology.
With a simple, compact manual such as Dream Psychology there shall be no
longer any excuse for ignorance of the most revolutionary psychological system
of modern times.